Human capital and growth

Human capital and growth

Updated June 2004

Introductory reading

Benhabib, J. and Spiegel, M.M. (1994). The role of human capital in economic development: evidence from aggregate cross-country data. Journal of Monetary Economics, 34, 143-173.

Griliches, Z. (1988). Technology, education and productivity. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Krueger, Alan B. and Lindahl, Mikael (2001). Education for Growth: Why and for Whom? Journal of Economic Literature, December, 39(4), 1101-36.

Krueger, Alan B. and Lindahl, Mikael (1999). Education for growth in Sweden and the world. Swedish Economic Policy Review, Autumn, 6(2), 289-339.

Lucas, R. E. (1988). On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22, 3-42.

Lucas, R. E. (1990). Why doesn’t capital flow from rich to poor countries? American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 92-96.

Mankiw, N. G. (1995). The growth of nations. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, 1.

Mankiw, N. G., Romer, D. and Weil, D. N. (1992). A contribution to the empirics of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 407-437.

Temple, Jonathan R. W. (2001). Growth effects of education and social capital in the OECD countries. OECD Economic Studies, 33, 57-101.

Topel, Robert (1999). Labor markets and economic growth. In Handbook of labor economics. Volume 3C. Amsterdam; New York and Oxford: Elsevier Science, North-Holland, 2943-84.

Further reading – 2006


Blankenau, William (2005). Public Schooling, College Subsidies and Growth. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, March, 29(3), 487-507.

Maki, Taichi; Yotsuya, Koichi and Yagi, Tadashi (2005). Economic Growth and the Riskiness of Investment in Firm-Specific Skills. European Economic Review, May, 49(4), 1033-49.


Cook, David (2004). Experience and Growth. Economics Letters, October, 85(1), 53-56.

Glewwe, Paul and Jacoby, Hanan G. (2004). Economic Growth and the Demand for Education: Is There a Wealth Effect? Journal of Development Economics, Special Issue June, 74(1), 33-51.

Krueger, Dirk and Kumar, Krishna B. (2004). US-Europe Differences in Technology-Driven Growth: Quantifying the Role of Education. Journal of Monetary Economics, January, 51(1), 161-90.

Le, Trinh, Gibson, John and Oxley, Les (2004). A forward looking measure of the stock of human capital in New Zealand Manuscript, Canterbury, New Zealand.

Thomas, Duncan, et al (2004). Education in a Crisis. Journal of Development Economics, Special Issue June, 74(1), 53-85.


Engelbrecht, Hans-Jurgen (2003). Human capital and economic growth: cross-section evidence for OECD countries. Economic Record, 79, Special Issue, June, 40-51.

Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor (2003). Accounting for Human Capital Externalities with an Application to the Nordic Countries. European Economic Review, June, 47(3), 553-67.

Hojo, Masakazu (2003). An Indirect Effect of Education on Growth. Economics Letters, July, 80(1), 31-34.

Klasen, Stephan (2003). Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All? Cross-Country Evidence on the Effect of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Development: Erratum. World Bank Economic Review, 17(2), 315-16.

Krebs, Tom (2003). Human Capital Risk and Economic Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, May, 118(2), 709-44.

Papageorgiou, Chris (2003). Distinguishing between the Effects of Primary and Post-primary Education on Economic Growth. Review of Development Economics, November, 7(4), 622-35.

Serrano, Lorenzo (2003). Measurement error in schooling data: the OECD case. Applied Economics Letters. February, 10(2), 73-75.


Bassanini, Andrea and Scarpetta, Stefano (2002). Does Human Capital Matter for Growth in OECD Countries? A Pooled Mean-Group Approach. Economics Letters, February, 74(3), 399-405.

Castello, Amparo and Domenech, Rafael (2002). Human capital inequality and economic growth: some new evidence. Economic Journal, 112(478), C187-200.

del Barrio Castro, Tomas; Lopez Bazo, Enrique and Serrano Domingo, Guadalupe (2002). New Evidence on International R&D Spillovers, Human Capital and Productivity in the OECD. Economics Letters, September, 77(1), 41-45.

Gradstein, Mark and Justman, Moshe (2002). Education, Social Cohesion, and Economic Growth. American Economic Review, September, 92(4), 1192-1204.

Gundlach, E., Rudman, D. and Woessmann, L. (2002). Second thoughts on development accounting. Applied Economics, July, 34(11), 1359-69.

Hendricks, Lutz (2002). How important is human capital for development? Evidence from immigrant earnings. American Economic Review, March, 92(1), 198-219.

Judson, Ruth (2002). Measuring human capital like physical capital: what does it tell us? Bulletin of Economic Research, July, 54(3), 209-31.

Knowles, Stephen, Lorgelly, Paula and Owen, Dorian (2002). Are educational gender gaps a brake on economic development? Some cross-country empirical evidence. Oxford Economic Papers, January, 54(1), 118-49.

Engelbrecht, Hans-Juergen (2002). Human capital and international knowledge spillovers in TFP growth of a sample of developing countries: an exploration of alternative approaches. Applied Economics, 34(7), 831-841.


Barro, Robert J. (2001). Human capital and growth. American Economic Review, May, 91(2), 12-17.

Barro, Robert J. and Lee, Jong-Wha (2001). International data on educational attainment: updates and implications. Oxford Economic Papers, July, 53(3), 541-63.

Bassanini, Andrea and Scarpetta, Stefano (2001). Does human capital matter for growth in OECD countries? Evidence from pooled mean group estimates OECD Economics working paper no. 282.

Beauchemin, Kenneth R. (2001). Growth or Stagnation? The Role of Public Education. Journal of Development Economics, April, 64(2), 389-416.

Beine, Michel; Docquier, Frederic and Rapoport, Hillel (2001). Brain Drain and Economic Growth: Theory and Evidence. Journal of Development Economics, February, 64(1), 275-89.

de la Fuente, Angel and Domenech, Rafael (2001). Schooling data, technological diffusion, and the neoclassical model. American Economic Review, May, 91(2), 323-327.

Goldin, Claudia and Katz, Lawrence F. (2001). The Legacy of U.S. Educational Leadership: Notes on Distribution and Economic Growth in the 20th Century. American Economic Review, May, 91(2), 18-23.

Iyigun, Murat, F., H. Naci Mocan, and Ann L. Owen (2001). Ideology, human capital, and growth. University of Colorado Working Paper No: 01-2, March.

Kalaitzidakis, Pantelis, et al (2001). Measures of Human Capital and Nonlinearities in Economic Growth. Journal of Economic Growth, September, 6(3), 229-54.

Lee, Jong-Wha and Barro, Robert J. (2001). Schooling quality in a cross-section of countries. Economica, 68(272), 465-88.

Pritchett, Lant (2001). Where has all the education gone? World Bank Economic Review, 15(3), 367-91.

Tamura, Robert (2001). Teachers, growth, and convergence. Journal of Political Economy, October, 109(5), 1021-59.

Temple, Jonathan (2001). Generalizations that aren’t? Evidence on education and growth. European Economic Review, May, 45(4-6), 905-918.


Bils, Mark and Klenow, Peter J. (2000). Does schooling cause growth? American Economic Review, December, 90(5), 1160-1183.

Cannon, Edmund S. (2000). Human capital: level versus growth effects. Oxford Economic Papers, October, 52(4).

de la Fuente, Angel and Domenech, Rafael (2000). Human capital in growth regressions: how much difference does data quality make? CEPR discussion paper no. 2466, May.

Hanushek, Eric A. and Kimko, Dennis D. (2000). Schooling, labor-force quality, and the growth of nations. American Economic Review, December, 90(5), 1184-1208.

Kalemli Ozcan, Sebnem; Ryder, Harl E. and Weil, David N. (2000). Mortality Decline, Human Capital Investment, and Economic Growth. Journal of Development Economics, June, 62(1), 1-23.

Mulligan, Casey B. and Sala-i-Martin, Xavier (2000). Measuring aggregate human capital. Journal of Economic Growth, September, 5(3), 215-252.

Rangazas, Peter (2000). Schooling and Economic Growth: A King-Rebelo Experiment with Human Capital. Journal of Monetary Economics, October, 46(2), 397-416.

Sianesi, Barbara and Van Reenen, John (2000). The returns to education: a review of the macro-economic literature. Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE, discussion paper no. 6.

Tamura, Robert (2000). Growth, fertility and human capital: a survey. Spanish Economic Review, December, 2(3), 183-229.

Woessmann, Ludger (2000). Specifying human capital: a review, some extensions, and development effects. Kiel working paper no. 1007.


Barro, Robert J. (1999). Human capital and growth in cross-country regressions. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 6(2), 237-277.

Helpman, Elhanan and Rangel, Antonio (1999). Adjusting to a new technology: experience and training. Journal of Economic Growth, 4(4), December, 359-383.

Iyigun, Murat F. and Owen, Ann L. (1999). Entrepreneurs, professionals, and growth. Journal of Economic Growth, 4(2), June, 213-232.

Lorgelly, Paula K. and Owen, P. Dorian (1999). The effect of female and male schooling on economic growth in the Barro-Lee model. Empirical Economics, 24(3), 537-557.

Sorensen, Anders (1999). R&D, learning, and phases of economic growth. Journal of Economic Growth, December, 4(4), 429-445.

Temple, Jonathan R. W. (1999). A positive effect of human capital on growth. Economics Letters, October, 65(1), 131-134.

Zilibotti, Fabrizio (1999). Comment on Robert Barro: Human capital and growth in cross-country regressions. Swedish Economic Policy Review, Autumn, 6(2), 279-87.


Arnold, Lutz (1998). Growth, welfare, and trade in an integrated model of human capital accumulation and research. Journal of Macroeconomics, 20, 81-105.

Chiu, W. (1998). Income inequality, human capital accumulation and economic performance. Economic Journal, 108, 44-59.

Judson, R. (1998). Economic growth and investment in education: how allocation matters. Journal of Economic Growth, 3, 337-359.

Owen, Ann L. and Weil, David N. (1998). Intergenerational earnings mobility, inequality and growth. Journal of Monetary Economics, 41(1), February, 71-104.

Podrecca, Elena (1998). Imperfect labour markets in a two-sector model of endogenous growth. Economic Notes, 3, 403-436.


Engelbrecht, Hans-Juergen (1997). International R&D spillovers, human capital and productivity in OECD economies: an empirical investigation. European Economic Review, 41, 1479-1488.

Klenow, Peter J. and Rodriguez-Clare, Andres (1997). The neoclassical revival in growth economics: has it gone too far? NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 73-103.

Murthy, N. R. Vasudeva and Chien, I. S. (1997). The empirics of economic growth for OECD countries: some new findings. Economics Letters, 55, 425-429.


Barro, Robert J. and Lee, Jong-Wha. (1996). International measures of schooling years and schooling quality American Economic Review, 86(2), 218-23.

Gemmell, N. (1996). Evaluating the impacts of human capital stocks and accumulation on economic growth: some new evidence, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 58(1), 9-28.


Gundlach, Erich (1995). The role of human capital in economic growth: new results and alternative interpretations. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 131, 383-402.

Laing, D., Palivos, T. and Wang, P. (1995). Learning, matching and growth. Review of Economic Studies, 62, 115-129.

Nehru, V., Swanson, E. and Dubey, A. (1995). A new database on human capital stocks in developing and industrial countries: sources, methodology and results. Journal of Development Economics, 46(2), 379-401.

O’Neill, Donal (1995). Education and income growth: implications for cross-country inequality. Journal of Political Economy, 103(6), 1289-1301.


Gundlach, Erich (1994). Accounting for the stock of human capital: selected evidence and potential implications. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 130, 350-374.

Tallman, Ellis W. and Ping Wang (1994). Human capital and endogenous growth: evidence from Taiwan. Journal of Monetary Economics, 34, 101-124.

Winter-Ebmer, R. (1994). Endogenous growth, human capital and industry wages. Bulletin of Economic Research, 46, 238-314.


Barro, R. and Lee, J.-W. (1993). International comparisons of educational attainment Journal of Monetary Economics, 32(3).

Caballe, J. and Santos, M. S. (1993). On endogenous growth with physical and human capital. Journal of Political Economy, 101, 1042-1067.

Chamley, C. (1993). Externalities and dynamics in models of Learning by Doing. International Economic Review, 583-609.

Laitner, J. (1993). Long-run growth and human capital. Canadian Journal of Economics, 26, 796-814.

Lau, L. J., Jamison, D. T., Lius, S. and Rivkin, S. (1993). Education and economic growth: some cross-sectional evidence from Brazil. Journal of Development Economics, 41, 45-70.

Ljungqvist, L. (1993). Economic development: the case of a missing market for human capital. Journal of Development Economics, 40, 219-239.

Mulligan, C. B. and Sala-i-Martin, X. (1993). Transitional dynamics in two-sector models of endogenous growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108, 739-773.

Rauch, James E. (1993). Productivity gains from geographic concentration of human capital: evidence from the cities. Journal of Urban Economics, November, 34(3), 380-400.

Romer, P. M. (1993). Idea gaps and object gaps in economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 32, 543-573.


Jorgenson, D. W. and Fraumeni, B. M. (1992). Investment in education and US economic growth. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 94, S51-S70.


Chari, V. V. and Hopenhayn, H. (1991). Vintage human capital, growth, and the diffusion of new technology. Journal of Political Economy, 99, 1142-1165.


Azariadis, C. and Drazen, A. (1990). Threshold externalities and economic development. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 501-526.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Human capital and growth: theory and evidence. Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, 32, 251-286.

Rosenzweig, M. R. (1990). Population growth and human capital investments: theory and evidence. Journal of Political Economy, 98, S38-S69.


Easterlin, R. A. (1981). Why isn’t the whole world developed? Journal of Economic History, 1-19.

Krueger, A. O. (1968). Factor endowments and per capita income differences among countries. Economic Journal, 78, 641-659.

Nelson, R. R. and Phelps, E. S. (1966). Investment in humans, technological diffusion, and economic growth. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 69-75.

Prescott, E. C. and Boyd, J. H. (1987). Dynamic coalitions: engines of growth. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 63-67.

Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in human capital. American Economic Review, 1-17.

Schultz, T. W. (1961). Education and economic growth. In N. B. Henry (ed.) Social forces influencing American education. Chicago.

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